Return

Introduction
Basic Energy Concepts
Enzymes
Types of Catabolism
Fermentation
Feremented Foods
Respiration
Catabolism of Fats
Catabolism of Proteins
Amazing Respirations
Membranes and
Energy Generation

Anaerobic Respiration
Lithotrophs
Photosynthesis
Summary of Catabolism
Anabolism
Collecting Elements
Synthesizing Monomers
Carbon Assimilation
Nitrogen Assimulation
Other Assimilation
Formation of
Amino Acids

Lipid Synthesis
Nucleotide Synthesis
Making Polymers
Structural Assembly
Amphibolic Pathways

Search | Send us your comments


Cytochrome Oxidase

©1999 Timothy Paustian, University of Wisconsin-Madison

An animation of cytochrome oxidase. Electrons flow through the CuA site (a copper atom), are donated to heme a and then end up reducing the active site containing heme a3 and CuB (a second copper atom). Oxygen binds to the active site after heme a3 and CuB are reduced with two electrons. Reduction with a third electron causes a change in the binding of the oxygen, forming water and resulting in the translocation of two protons across the membrane. The fourth and final electron helps reduce the final oxygen to water and causes two more protons to move across the membrane. Formation of two water molecules from one oxygen uses four electrons, consumes four protons from the cytoplasm and four more protons are pumped across the membrane. In this animation the protons, electrons and oxygen have been enlarged to improve clarity.

If the above graphic is a shockwave animation, click on the button below to get the latest player.

get_shockwave picture

If the above graphic is a Quicktime animation, Go to Apple's web site to get the latest player.


This page was last built with Frontier and Web Warrior on a Macintosh on Thu, Sep 21, 2000 at 1:16:27 PM.